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Civil works



civil-works
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civil-works

The progress of humanity has relied heavily on civil engineering and infrastructural development.

Civil engineering is a discipline that uses the knowledge of calculus, mechanics, hydraulics and physics to conduct the design, construction and maintenance of infrastructure in the environment; including roads, railways, bridges, canals, dams, ports, airports, dams and  other similar structures.

Earthworks are engineering works created through the moving or processing of parts of the earth's surface involving quantities of soil or unformed rock. The earth may be moved to another location and formed into a desired shape for a purpose. Much of earthworks involves machine excavation and fill or backfill.

Excavated products are loaded and transported on robust specialised transport.

Earthmoving machinery is a type of equipment used in the construction of roads, railways, tunnels, airports, water reservoirs and other constructions. They are designed to perform several functions, including: loosen and remove earth, lift and load. It’s then transported on vehicles using tiers of compacted earth. Some machines can perform more than one of these operations.




Earthmoving Machines:


EXCAVATOR. There are several types: motion is divided into crawler/tracked excavators or wheeled excavators.

BULLDOZER. These machines remove and push the ground with its front blade. The efficiency of these machines is limited to movements of just over 100 m horizontally. They are usually equipped with steel teeth at the back, known as the ripper. The track then pushes the bulldozer and the blade with the loosened earth forward. Renowned for excellent tractive force.

FRONT LOADER. This equipment is used to remove relatively loose soil and 
load it onto vehicles such as trucks or dump trucks. They are usually hinged to allow maneuverability in a confined space.

LOADER. Machine the 
loads the already loose material onto trucks.

SCRAPER. These 
machines are used to cut uniform layers of earth with a smooth consistency, the blade opening is to the front of the container (hopper). When vehicle is going forward it cuts the soil or clay like and material is pushed into the hopper. When this is full, the blade is closed, and the material is transported to the fill area. Here the rear side is opened and a uniform layer ejected.

GRADER. This is used 
to mix the earth when it comes from different quarries in order to give consistency and spread it in a uniform layer ready for compaction. Graders are essential for profiling slopes.

DRILL. Used to drill 
rock where the explosives are then introduced.